Search results for: History of Jewish education
Page 3/5 44 items
Members of the Jewish Enlightenment movement and Jewish financial entrepreneurs undertook an active, conscious project to effect significant transformations in the Jewish habitus in German-speaking areas during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A symbiotic relationship allowed these groups to disseminate a new vision of Jewish society through multiple mediums including, as this article examines in particular, a new Jewish educational system and new educational texts written for children and young adults. With guidelines on daily practices including personal hygiene, dress, language, leisure, and interactions with one’s surroundings, these texts reached not only their intended audience but the parents’ generation as well. What should one do after getting up in the morning? Should one wash, and, if so, when? How should one behave at the table? How should one dress, or employ one’s leisure time? These and others are among the daily practices that organize a person’s life. They are not spontaneous actions; rather, they derive from social norms and cultural codes that characterize a particular social group and distinguish it from others. To put it another way: they comprise the habitus of a specific individual and the social group to which he or she belongs. This article examines for the first time the changes in the Jewish habitus that resulted from significant transformations within Jewish society in German-speaking areas during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and the active role played by a new Jewish educational system therein. Changes of this sort are generally inconspicuous and latent; this article, however, points to an intentional and marked effort toward transforming the Jewish habitus via the active help of the educational system made by two key groups: members of the Jewish Enlightenment movement (Maskilim), and the Jewish financial elite of the time. It examines the realities and motivations that spurred both groups to action, the synergistic relationship that existed between them, and the methods each employed.
Updated: Mar. 23, 2016
“Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son”: New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals
This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the particular requirements of the traditional Jewish audience. They also bear witness to a marked shift in the conceptions of childhood and of education within the Jewish realm, as their emphasis on sons’ duties toward their fathers was gradually replaced by a growing sensitivity toward their young audience’s needs.
Updated: Mar. 23, 2016
Hebrew Learning Ideologies and the Reconceptualization of American Judaism: Language Debates in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century
This article examines the ways in which Hebrew education was construed in the United States by tracing the Hebrew ideology debate of the early and mid-1900s, when dramatic changes were made to modernize Jewish schooling and its place within American society. Focusing on the Hebrew learning ideologies and educational philosophies of Samson Benderly and his followers, it examines how the Ivrit b’Ivrit movement – teaching Jewish content in Modern Hebrew – re-conceptualized Hebrew education not only as a form of language acquisition, but as a means of defining and giving shape to American Judaism for the Jewish immigrant community at that time.
Updated: Dec. 30, 2015
Zionist summer camps and their tourist activities in interwar Poland have been widely studied providing a broad analysis in a range of contexts. However, there has been limited exploration of Jewish summer camps organized by non-Zionist youth movements. This article addresses this omission answering questions about the ideals that motivated the founders of summer camps for Jewish socialist youth in interwar Poland.
Updated: Dec. 30, 2015
In March 1960, Yad Vashem, in partnership with the Israeli Ministry of Education, surveyed Israeli school principals about Holocaust education and observance of Holocaust Remembrance Day in their schools. This article analyzes the results of that survey and how it was used by Yad Vashem to begin a dialogue with Israeli schools over how the Holocaust should be taught.
Updated: Dec. 15, 2015
The establishment of formal Torah education for women across the Orthodox spectrum certainly qualifies as one of the most significant changes in Jewish education in recent memory. Today, the notion that Orthodox girls and young women receive a school-based Torah education is completely commonplace. Less than one hundred years ago, it was virtually nonexistent. Much of this is related to the creation and growth of the Beit Ya’akov school system in Poland in the years between the two World Wars. Beit Ya’akov’s influence is most obvious in today’s Haredi sector, which identifies itself as heirs to that legacy, but the movement’s impact on the Modern Orthodox sector is no less profound. Despite the importance of Beit Ya’akov in the history of Orthodoxy and Jewish education, there is much that we do not know about its founding, growth, and development.
Updated: Sep. 21, 2015
While the Final Solution was instituted throughout Europe, this paper will focus on the inhabitants of the Kovno Ghetto. As they faced extermination, Kovno Jews risked their lives to create detailed records including: lists and accounts of people killed, diagrams of the camp, artwork, journals, and photographs of the events in the camp. One act of defiance chronicled in the photographs and writings was the hidden school system that the Jews conducted to exercise one of the few powers they possessed, the power to preserve their culture. The history of clandestine schools is outlined using the diary of Avraham Tory, excerpts of the diaries of students, historical information provided by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and other historical resources.
Updated: Jun. 17, 2015
This article explores the career of Jacob Behrman (1921–2012) and the growth of Behrman House from a small Jewish bookseller to the leading publisher of Jewish religious school textbooks. Behrman’s success owed in part to his ability to appeal to the vast center, to gauge correctly his consumers’ needs and reflect their outlook and values, to eschew partisanship and play down ideological differences, and to swim with the tide.
Updated: May. 12, 2015
Theories of Americanization and the Jewish Educational Experience in the United States (From the Turn of the 20th Century to the Late 1930's)
In a recent treatise on the 'Historiography of American Jewish Education' the author (Krasner, 2011a, p. 117) quoted Sarna's critique on 'the death of high caliber scholarship on the history of American Jewish Education' (Sarna, 1998, p. 8). Indeed, the aim of this study is an historical-analytical exposition of 'Theories of Americanization' referring to Jewish education at one of the major crossroads in the United States of America, the latter years of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century.
Updated: Sep. 23, 2014
Educational Attitudes and Language Choice at the Birth of a Progressive Yiddish-language Folks Shule in Argentina
This paper discusses the Yiddish-language foundational act of the Max Nordau shule in La Plata, Argentina. It also discusses the historical and political context of the school’s foundation and the founders’ educational attitudes toward progressive education and Yiddish as the language of instruction and daily use. The paper reveals insights gained from a study of the Yiddish language foundational act document, such as the importance of Jewish elementary education for the survival of Jewish culture and the transmission to children of a strong Jewish identity.
Updated: Sep. 23, 2014