Tools for Studying the Hebrew Bible


Source: Tools for Studying the Hebrew Bible


This site, developed and maintained by Professor Mark Brettler, aims to teach students how to use a set of specialized tools for the study of the Hebrew text of the Hebrew Bible (henceforth, the Bible). These are different from the tools used for modern Hebrew because the languages are substantially different, and because the study of ancient texts, written in "dead" or "literary" languages, such as BH (biblical Hebrew), is fundamentally different from the study of modern languages.

The types of tools presented here include:

  • Scholarly Editions of the Hebrew Bible
  • Lexica
  • Grammars
  • Concordances: Electronic and Paper
  • Other Research Tools

It also contains some helpful exercises designed to help students learn how to use the major scholarly tools, as well as some other tools that the beginning and intermediate student of biblical Hebrew may find useful. It includes a list of basic tools for general biblical scholarship that students writing papers (at any level) may find helpful. Finally, it contains a Hebrew-English and English-Hebrew glossary of terms used in biblical scholarship so that English speakers can more easily read modern Hebrew articles, and vice versa.


Marc Brettler is the Bernice and Morton Lerner Professor of Judaic Studies at Duke University, and Dora Golding Professor of Biblical Studies emeritus at Brandeis University.

Updated: Jul. 15, 2015