Qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to examine the religious and ethnic identity of youth attending a Jewish summer camp in Texas. A strong aspect of participants' Jewish identity is formulated in reaction to the surrounding Christian society, with which they negotiate a compromise to live relatively comfortably.
The informal religious education and temporary community of the camp allow exploration of a proactive Jewish identity. A typology is developed with two sets of opposed concepts of identity: individual versus peoplehood and internal versus external. Sub-regions differentiate between fearful versus benevolent external identity and between psychological versus traditional internal identity.